Top 10 Horror Films


And here we are! It’s October 31 and Halloween is in full swing. To celebrate this most momentous of holiday seasons, we’ve had a month full of horror with my retrospective on the Halloween films, The Nights He Came Home, a look at the German Expressionist classic The Golem (1920), and yesterday’s Top 10 Hellboy Stories. But it’s all been leading to this, folks. So without further ado, here are my Top 10 Horror Films!

 10. Bride of Frankenstein (1935)

Bride of Frankenstein Poster

Many consider Bride of Frankenstein to be not only the best Universal horror film ever made, but perhaps even the best horror film ever made. There’s a strong case going for it, but oddly what makes it such a richly potent film is not the scares or chills; it’s the way director James Whale was able to infuse a camp sensibility, rife with comic genius, into the gothic terror of the story. Whilst it is not a straight adaptation of Mary Shelley’s book, it is easily the best film based on the book. Elsa Lanchester’s Bride is the perfect mix of both beauty and gothic degeneration; resplendent, even in death.

9. The Exorcist (1973)

The Exorcist Poster

The Exorcist is arguably the greatest story of good and evil told in the horror genre since the publication of Dracula (1897). The film goes far beyond what has previously been established on camera as the work of the Devil, showing nothing less than the complete corruption, body and soul, of a 12-year-old girl. As Satan, in his manifestation as Pazuzu, destroys Reagan, two Catholic priests must battle for what is left of her. One has been hunting Pazuzu all of his life; the other’s faith is near its end, and he struggles to find meaning in existence. As full of power now as the year it came out, The Exorcist is a film that will swallow you up whole and grab you like no other.

8. The Blair Witch Project (1999)

The Blair Witch Project Poster

Also making an appearance on my Top 10 American Folk Horror Stories list, The Blair Witch Project is primal filmmaking. Many have tried to replicate it’s success, but few have succeeded. As three filmmaking students get lost in the woods, a menacing, terrifying presence starts to hunt them. As desperation sets in, they have to fight not only for their lives but for their minds. The film paints a picture that is relentlessly bleak and exhausting. And when the final climax comes, nothing will prepare the viewer for the wave of horror that will hit them. Easily the most terrifying film I’ve ever seen.

7. Psycho (1960)

Psycho Poster

The original slasher film is still the best. Marion Crane has stolen $40,000 from her employer. On her way to California, she stops off at the Bates Motel for the night. What she’ll find there will scar not only her but her family forever. Some might think Psycho somewhat naïve after the wave of slasher films it inspired, but it is still easily the most powerful and shocking of them all. The villain of the film will stick with you forever, and he easily ranks among the greatest villains in cinema history. I’ll never tire of Psycho for this exact reason. Timeless.

6. An American Werewolf in London (1981)

An American Werewolf in London Poster

Two college students decide to go on a European tour and start by backpacking across England. There, they are savagely attacked by a wild beast on the North York Moors. One is killed, and the other is left with strange dreams of running through the woods, free and uninhibited to give into a powerful lust for blood… An American Werewolf in London remains as biting today as in 1981 because of its brilliant fusion of comedy, horror, and tragedy. The werewolf transformation scene still ranks as the definitive moment in werewolf cinema. Shocking, funny, and sad all at once, An American Werewolf in London remains as John Landis’ masterpiece.

5. Vampyr (1932)

Vampyr Poster

Vampyr is criminally under-appreciated among horror aficionados. Perhaps the reason is that it is so totally unlike any other horror film and defies many of the conventions of the vampire film. It is nothing less than the most accurate cinematic representation of a nightmare. The whole film is mysterious, ghostly, and dream-like. You never feel that it is set in a real place. The landscape is apocalyptic and lies half in dream and reality. Vampyr is more like a series of random events linked only tentatively with plot. Completely absorbing, terrifying, and bleak, there will never be another film like Vampyr. It is one of those rare films that is completely original.

4. The Thing (1982)

The Thing Poster

John Carpenter’s body-horror classic is his best film because it is the most advanced in storytelling, characterisation, and craft. It also brings to cinema perhaps one of the greatest of all movie-monsters. Set in the Antarctic, Kurt Russell’s MacReady and the rest of his base must defend themselves against an ancient alien being. However, this being can transform into anyone it kills. And as the paranoia and isolation sets in and the sky goes dark, Macready must prepare to exterminate not only this being but perhaps everyone else. Abysmally dark and terrifying, The Thing is a film unlike any other. Cannot be missed.

3. Evil Dead II (1987)

Evil Dead II Poster

Ash Williams and his girlfriend go to a small cabin in the woods for a romantic get away. When he reads aloud from the Necronomicon Ex-Mortis, he awakens the spirits of the dead as they relentlessly assault the cabin. Ash must survive until morning. Simple in plot but brilliant in execution, Sam Raimi’s horror-comedy is full of blood, guts, and laughs. Imagine Buster Keaton making a slasher film and that’s what you get here; masterful in every sense and schlocky to the core. Simply put, a cinematic treasure and the greatest horror-comedy ever made.

2. The Mummy (1932)

The Mummy Poster

Featuring my favourite opening of any horror film, The Mummy tells the story of Imhotep, an Egyptian priest who is accidentally resurrected. In 1930s Cairo he begins his preparations to resurrect his long-lost love, and is prepared to kill anyone who comes in his way. Whilst it may objectively not be the best of the Universal Monsters cycle, I simply love the Egyptian setting. The film is faithful to its setting in a way that few films since have; this lends it the perfect atmosphere. On top of that you have the masterful direction of Karl Freund and perhaps the best performance Boris Karloff ever gave. I’ve watched it countless times and I’ll watch it countless more. A masterpiece of the Egyptian gothic.

1. Nosferatu (1922)

Nosferatu Poster

The first of many great adaptations of Dracula, F. W. Murnau’s Nosferatu is also the best. It’s a film full of shadows and fog, and has a silent, waking terror that few films are able to conjure forth. Count Orlok is one of cinema’s greatest vampires. Completely inhuman, disgusting, and corpse-like, he is terrifying in a way that Dracula never was. One of my first true horror films, Nosferatu remains my favourite because you can see it’s influence in just about every single horror film. A masterpiece.

Well that’s it folks. Thank you for reading and joining me in this past month’s celebration of all things horrifying. Tomorrow we’ll be back to normal content. I’ve really enjoyed this month-long celebration, and look forward to doing it again next year. Thank you for reading, and see you in the funny pages!

Top 10 Hellboy Stories


After a month full of articles focusing on cinema, I thought it about time to switch gears and write about my favourite horror comic. Hellboy, created by Mike Mignola in 1994, is without a doubt one of the best modern American comics. Full of pulpy action, complex characters, classic gothic horror and a dose of Lovecraftian science fiction, this bizarre and utterly compelling comic is one of the great comics success stories of the last 50 years. 20 years later, Hellboy is still as compelling as ever, and so I thought it only fit to put together my Top 10 Hellboy stories for the month of October. Enjoy!

10. Wake the Devil (1996)

Hellboy 1

The second long-form story starring Hellboy could also be considered the real starting point of the Hellboy mythos. It introduces not only the main Nazi villains of the franchise, Karl Kroenen, Ilsa Haupstein and Leopold Kurtz, but also one of the most important of Hellboy villains, the goddess Hecate. In addition to this it expands Hellboy’s origins beyond the basic mythology set up in Seed of Destruction. In addition to all of this mythology work, Wake the Devil also functions as a really good one-off story. There are so many great elements here – Rasputin’s chat with Hellboy in the forests, the introduction of Roger, Hellboy’s long chat with Giurescu’s father – it’s the first long-form story to show the potential that the longer Hellboy stories had.

9. “The Island” (2005)

Hellboy 2

The spiritual successor to “The Third Wish” (2002), “The Island” is a confusing, foreboding, and disturbing story. You can see, reading it, why it took Mike Mignola five years to complete it and why it was the cause of so much strife in his own life. The story basically lays out the secret history of Hellboy’s universe, revealing the origins of God, angels, Earth, the Ogdru Jahad, and exactly what Hellboy’s Right Hand of Doom is. It has an atmosphere of dread that few other Hellboy stories have, and because of this it is singularly nihilistic. It’s a story completely devoid of any kind of hope, and in this respect it is perhaps the most Lovecraftian of all Hellboy stories. Utterly bizarre and unique among the stories of the Hellboy mythos.

8. “Hellboy in Mexico” (2010)

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In perhaps what is one of the most pop-culture enthused stories that Mignola has written, “Hellboy in Mexico” is at its core a tragedy. Hellboy relates to Abe Sapien some events that occurred in 1956 in Mexico. There we see that Hellboy has been sent to Mexico by the B.P.R.D. to deal with an outbreak in supernatural occurrences. There, he meets three luchador brothers who have been sent by the Virgin Mary to eradicate all monsters. Hellboy becomes very close friends with the youngest, but tragedy is just around the corner. Inspired by the cult-favourite luchador films, on its surface “Hellboy in Mexico” sounds like a comedic story that you can’t take too seriously. Luchadors fighthing monsters – awesome! But it is actually perhaps one of the saddest of all Hellboy stories, made all the more memorable by the grotesque artwork of Richard Corben, whom Mignola would write several Hellboy stories for. Poignant and tragic, “Hellboy in Mexico” has everything you could ask of a Hellboy short story.

7. “The Wolves of Saint August” (1994)

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“The Wolves of Saint August” is the second Hellboy story that Mike Mignola worked on and the first that he fully scripted. His artwork is still in it’s more detailed early stages, and the story here really benefits from this style of artwork. It is perhaps the most singularly gothic of all Hellboy stories. Hellboy and Kate Corrigan visit the town of Griart. What they find is true horror as every single person has been killed by a wild animal. They soon learn the dark, secret history of Griart, involving the ghosts of several werewolves. “The Wolves of Saint August” is a rougher, edgier story that is less refined that Mignola’s later works. But it has a savagery, darkness, and classic gothic that is unique among the Hellboy pantheon. This is the first Hellboy story I read that I truly, truly loved. Brilliant.

6. “The Crooked Man” (2008)

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Anyone who’s read my article on the Top 10 American Folk Horror Stories will know that this fantastic story would have to come along eventually. It’s the best story that Mignola has done with Richard Corben because it is so suited to Corben’s own sensibilities as an artist. In 1958 Hellboy visits the Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, where he meets Tom Ferrell, a man who in his youth had congress with a witch and now owes his soul to the horrifying Crooked Man, one of Mignola’s truly most terrifying villains and an embodiment of pure evil. The story is made all the more spooky by its setting in a backwards, forested America, and experiments with a type of horror that is rare to see in the pages of Hellboy. If you’re a fan of films like The Evil Dead (1981), you will find much to love here.

5. “Almost Colossus” (1997)

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“Almost Colossus” is a follow up to the second long-form Hellboy story, Wake the Devil, and continues the narrative thread in which Liz Sherman found and revived a homunculus. That homunculus is the focus of the story, as he traverses Europe seeking an end to his own life of misery. He eventually finds his “brother,” created by the same guy who created the homunculus, who promises to take him into his fold. Meanwhile, Hellboy and Kate Corrigan discover that Liz is actually dying as her power was used to revive the homunculus, and they search for him to restore Liz’s power. The homunculus, who henceforth would be known as Roger, is one of Mike Mignola’s most complex and fascinating characters. This first story to feature him is a truly excellent debut, as Hellboy is initially set against Roger. Intriguing and thought-provoking stuff, with a shade or two of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (1818) thrown in for good measure.

4. “The Third Wish” (2002)

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In his follow up to the Hellboy story Conqueror Worm, Mike Mignola decided to send Hellboy to Africa to explore his origins and further investigate his destiny. There he meets three mermaids in the service of the undersea witch the Bog Roosh. They take him captive and bring him to the Bog Roosh so she can kill him to prevent the apocalypse. It’s a stunningly crafted story and the Bog Roosh ranks among the most memorable of Hellboy villains. Mignola’s artwork fully realises the unique underwater environment that gives this Hellboy story a very different appearance to most other Hellboy tales. However, this is also a story that will tug at the emotional chords, as you really symapthise with the horrible plight of the lead of the mermaids. Exceptionally plotted and with complex characters, a good case could be made that it is actually the finest Hellboy short story. However, that distinction here goes to…

3. “The Corpse” (1996)

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Most Hellboy fans agree that this is the very best Hellboy short story, if not story period. I cannot agree more that it is the strongest short story Mignola has created. Constantly changing, twisting, and surprising, the story finds Hellboy in Ireland in 1958, searching for a missing child. To get the child back to her parents, Hellboy must find a final burial space for body of a man who was a good friend to the faries. Weird, gothic, and full of humour, humanity, and horror, “The Corpse” is one of the finest moments in the Hellboy universe. Not only is at an excellent standalone story, but it also introduced several characters such as Alice Monaghan, Gruagach, and King Dagda of the Faries who would become incredibly important in later stories.

2. Conqueror Worm (2001)

Hellboy 9

Another very strong contender for greatest Hellboy story, Conqueror Worm sees Hellboy and Roger deployed in Austria to confront the Herman von Klempt. Klempt is awaiting the return of a Nazi rocket sent during the initiation of a Nazi space program in 1939. The B.P.R.D. have confirmed that it is re-entering the atmosphere, but no one can predict what it carries inside of it, sent by the Ogdru Jahad to initiate the end of the world. Featuring perhaps one of the great monsters of the comic-book form, Conqueror Worm is an absolutely riveting story, one full of emotion as Hellboy and Roger fight to save the world. Conqueror Worm remains as one of the most important of Hellboy stories, having major lasting impact upon both the character and its world. It also ranks as one of the finest stories featuring Roger the homunculus.

1. Darkness Calls (2007) / The Wild Hunt (2008-2009) / The Storm and the Fury (2010-2011)

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Alright, so it might be cheating to include three stories as my number one pick for the Top 10 Hellboy Stories, but the three really do form a trilogy that acts as the closing of what is now being known as the first half of the Hellboy saga. Most people would balk at the thought of anyone but Mignola illustrating perhaps the most pivotal of Hellboy stories, but newcomer Ducan Fegredo is just as good an artist, and if anything I think these epic stories benefit from his more detailed, but not totally dissimilar style. Everything since Hellboy’s initial appearance in 1994 has been leading up to this: the Ogdru Jahad, Gruagach’s revenge, Hellboy’s ongoing feud with the Baba Yaga; it’s all been leading to these three stories as Hellboy must finally face his destiny as the Beast of the Apocalypse. The trilogy also doubles as perhaps the greatest modern fantasy epic, perfect for those who love The Lord of the Rings or A Wizard of Earthsea, only with a slightly more gothic tone. The story also benefits from being stretched out over three parts, as Hellboy and his true love Alice Monaghan become more deeply portrayed. A comic that will fill you with all emotions, This trilogy is the most heart-stirring of all the Hellboy stories. It is without a doubt Mike Mignola’s greatest artistic achievement, and his magnum opus.

For those who have read and enjoyed the Hellboy series, I hope you’ve enjoyed this Top 10. For those who have never read Hellboy before, I hope this Top 10 has given you some hints at some great places to start! Many thanks for reading, and I’ll see you next on Halloween to reveal my personal Top 10 Horror Films of all Time!!! See you then!

The Silent Cinema Blogathon: The Golem: How He Came into the World (1920)


Today marks a special day for Tales from the Border, as I partake for the first time in a blogathon! This first blogathon is the Silent Cinema Blogathon, hosted by the blog In the Good Old Days of Classic Hollywood and Lauren Champkin. Please head over to the blogathon page and have a look at all of the other great blogs contributing to this event. I have written on the German Expressionist classic, The Golem: How He Came into the World (1920), a cinematic oddity that will leave a profound impact on all viewers. Enjoy!

The Golem Poster

The Golem: How He Came into the World (1920) ranks among the most utterly bizarre of silent films. It combines both the naturalism of Nosferatu (1922) and the over-the-top visual gothic of The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920). It’s a film focusing on the plight of the Jews in a largely anti-Semitic time, filmed in Germany in the year of 1920 and on the cusp of near social-collapse. There’s plenty of evidence that it is both a Jewish film to its core and an anti-Semitic production. It’s a film of polarities and unity, order and chaos.

The Rabbi Jehuda during the first scene of worship in the film is spectacularly filmed by Karl Freund.

The Rabbi Jehuda during the first scene of worship in the film is spectacularly filmed by Karl Freund.

I think it’s because of these bizarre qualities that the film has fallen by the wayside, giving way to more overtly gothic expressionist horrors from Germany of the time. It never quite goes all the way into the realm of the gothic, though acclaimed cinematographer Karl Freund makes great use of the gothic in his lighting and photography. Perhaps the film cannot be considered a purely gothic experience; rather, it straddles the line of being the cinematic equivalent of a fairy tale, carrying across the stylistic choices and morality of these tales.

The fearsome Golem.

The fearsome Golem.

In this respect, The Golem ranks among the finest silent fairy tales committed to the screen. For those that have loved films such as Douglas FairbanksThe Thief of Bagdad (1924) and Jean Cocteau’s The Beauty and the Beast (1946), you will find much to love in The Golem. But at the same time, there are marked differences. The film doesn’t have the effervescent air that these others have. It is frequently grotesque and unnatural, and this odd combination of sumptuous visuals with the more horror-themed material creates a jagged edge that these other films don’t have.

The Golem 3

The appearance of Astaroth is the most memorable scene in the film, as it is dripping in gothic terror.

The center of all of these opposites and polarities is director and star Paul Wegener’s Golem. He is created by Rabbi Loew (Albert Steinrück) to protect the Jewish people of medieval Prague from an oncoming calamity that the Rabbi forsees in the stars. He is so desperate to save his people that he uses the black arts to craft the Golem out of clay, and then summon the demon Astaroth to tell him the word of life. With this word he brings the Golem to life. In many respects the Golem is just another representation of that most insidious of gothic terrors, Frankenstein’s monster, but in many other ways he has a symbolic power that Mary Shelley’s creation lacks. He is at once both a cultural hero of the Jewish people, and a ghastly anti-Semitic caricature. He is the rage incarnate of the Jewish people against those who would supress them, and also a symbol of their oncoming destruction. The fact that such a film was made in 1920s Germany, a time in which the Nazi Party was growing and which would capitalise on common anti-Semitism also speaks to the cultural relevancy of the film.

Knight Florian is a troubling figure within the film.

Knight Florian is a troubling figure within the film.

The character that spoke most to me in these respects is the Knight Florian, played by Lothar Müthel. He is full of contradictions. He is sent by the Emperor to deliver the decree that would banish the Jews from their ghetto. And upon arriving, his initial interactions with guards show full his hatred of the Jews. He literally smacks hands away, disgusted at the mere thought that a Jew would touch him. But then, upon seeing Miriam (Lyda Salmonova), the Rabbi’s daughter, he begins to pursue her affections. This seemed at odds to me. What are his intentions here? Is he an anti-Semite who sees the opportunity for sexual activity with one of the locals? Or are his intentions more honest? I don’t think you can relegate his role in the film to being simply an anti-Semite who wants to sleep with someone he considers below him. There is one particularly sexual scene in which he puts his hand upon Miriam’s chest, and she begins to shudder in response. In scenes like this, it does seem that he is merely interested in sex. But in others, such as when he sleeps the night in her arms, suggest a genuine intimacy between the two, one not possible if he was entirely anti-Semitic. Is love changing him? Unfortunately the answer will never be completely be clear, as he is quickly dispatched by the Golem, who throws him from the roof.

Paul Wegener, a man full of contradictions.

Paul Wegener, a man full of contradictions.

What exactly were director/writer/star Paul Wegener’s intentions with this film? I can’t say for sure. But like the very best of fairy tales, it is a cinematic oddity full of multiple meanings and dualities. It’s a film that only grew with social relevance in the 1930s and 40s. Wegener’s own life is full of these dualities as well; whilst Jewish artists were arrested, persecuted, and exiled under the reign of the Nazis, Paul Wegener became an actor of the state. At the same time, he donated lots of money to resistance groups and also hid the persecuted in his own home. Wegener, much like his magnum opus, is an oddity.

The near destruction of the ghetto is portrayed as a veritable apocalypse.

The near destruction of the ghetto is portrayed as a veritable apocalypse.

The Golem is very much worth your time, and I urge all with an interest in Jewish cultural studies and the history of silent cinema to search it out. If you find it even a little bit perplexing, then you’ll understand my thoughts on the film. At once a cinematic spectacle and a culturally important film, both beautiful and grotesque. The Golem is a film that will be talked about far into the years to come.


Silent Cinema Blogathon

The Nights He Came Home – A Halloween Retrospective, Part VIII: Halloween: Resurrection (2002)


Welcome to the eighth and final part of The Nights He Came Home – A Halloween Retrospective! Over the course of October this new special column, in which I revisit all of the original Halloween films in anticipation of that most spooky season, will be running every Monday and Thursday. Then, beginning on the 26th of October, articles with the unifying theme of the horror genre will be posted, leading up to an article on my choice of the 10 greatest horror films ever made. Today we examine Halloween: Resurrection (2002), the final entry in the original Halloween series. For previous entries in this series, click here.

Halloween Resurrection Logo

Halloween: Resurrection is without a doubt the very worst of the Halloween series. It’s not even because it embodies elements that lesser sequels share, such as terrible scripting and uninspired lazy direction. With Rick Rosenthal returning to the franchise, this should have been a great film; but Resurrection makes the mistake of trying to modernise the franchise beyond the Scream-like Halloween H20: 20 Years Later (1998). By making Resurrection an incompetent allegory for the internet age, Resurrection loses any vitality it could have had. It is at once modern and horribly dated in this respect. Add in several very annoying characters and a dreadful haunted-house-reality-show premise and Resurrection becomes completely unbearable.

After quickly despatching Laurie Strode (Jamie Lee Curtis) in the first five minutes, Michael Myers (Brad Loree) makes his way back to Haddonfield. There he finds that a gang of teenagers have been drafted into a live-internet-reality-show called Dangertainment, In this show they have to investigate the legendary Myers house to find clues to why he became a famed serial killer. Myers obviously isn’t happy with these goldilocks types and sets about killing them all.

The opening of the film is the strongest element, as Michael Myers hunts Laurie Strode one last time.

The opening of the film is the strongest element, as Michael Myers hunts Laurie Strode one last time.

The film suffers foremost because its premise is so lazily devised. As much as I wanted H20 to be the last sequel in the series, I would much have preferred another sequel starring Jamie Lee Curtis as the lead. That’s what I thought I was getting too; but she’s killed off in the first five minutes! I really didn’t like this element because after all Laurie has been through, she deserved to survive and be happy. Neither is provided to here.

Without either Donald Pleasence or Jamie Lee Curtis, Resurrection must instead rely on what Halloween has become famous for – stalking / murdering teenagers. Unfortunately after the slasher genre’s heyday this has become a standard element. So without either Pleasence or Curtis, Resurrection just feels like another tired slasher film that didn’t really have a point to be made beyond being a cash in. Halloween (1978) was the original slasher film, and it’s disappointing to see the series end on this lowest note.

Seeing Katee Sackhoff cast as a very feminine character was odd, considering her future success playing butch, powerful women.

Seeing Katee Sackhoff cast as a very feminine character was odd, considering her future success playing butch, powerful women.

There are a few recognisable stars in the film. Katee Sackhoff appears in a role totally against type. She is neither butch nor independent here, appearing as perhaps the most girlish and annoying character she’s ever played. It’s really weird and uncomfortable. Sackhoff made the right choice in taking stronger female roles for sure. Tyra Banks appears briefly but doesn’t really do much; hip-hop artist Busta Rhymes appears as one of the main characters, the founder of Dangertainment and is just an incredible unlikeable character. He likes kung fu movies and ends every sentence with the word “motherfucker.” Perhaps the role would have been funnier in another film; but it feels out-of-place and misguided in what should be a serious horror film. He’s funny but for all the wrong reasons.

Halloween Resurrection Poster

Halloween: Resurrection was a moderate commercial success with a worldwide $37.6 million gross. Critically the film was savaged. Plans for a sequel were made but eventually scrapped in favour of a reboot.

Ultimately Halloween: Resurrection relies on nothing but genre tropes, and this is why it is so thoroughly boring. It’s the worst of the series by far, a disappointment after the high-note of H20. I cannot in all good conscience recommend this film – avoid at all costs.


The Halloween series would be rebooted in 2007 with Rob Zombie’s remake. I’ve not heard good things, and considering it’s a different version of the character from John Carpenter’s original, The Nights He Came Home is going to end with this post. Thank you all for reading this special column series; I hope you’ve enjoyed reading these as much as I’ve enjoyed writing them. Of course my other special column series, It’s Alive! The Universal Monsters Saga is still on-going, but it had to take a break whilst I did this series. That will be kicking off again soon, and another semi-regular special column series is in the planning stages. Thank you for the continued support of this blog! Later this week there will be some more horror-themed posts for the season of Halloween, so I’ll see you then!